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Friday, 29 March 2013

Broghil Valley National Park

Broghil valley is one of the beautiful valleys located in Khyber Pakhton Khawa near Afghanistan border. It is the northern valley of Chitral and the distance from main chitral valley is about 250 Km. the ethnic group of Broghil is Wakhi the local language is also named Wakhi. The ethnic group of Broghi came in to being with the joint of Tajik, Chinese, and Afghan ethnic groups. They came here for food, shelter, job and new home. 
Broghli valley enhances more than 30 lakes smaller and bigger all of them are natural and the water of lakes coming from glaciers and stones. There is Broghil pass is very important passage which connects    Afghan and Pakistan borders the impotent pass is called Darwaza which connects Aghan border from the north west. From the southeast direction the valley connected Yasin valley through Darkot pass. 
Tourist Attraction:
Broghil valley enhances many lakes and mountain attraction which are unique from all over the world although it is yet not explored by the international and local tourists. The valley consists of few species of animal and birds although which cannot be seen in ordinary way. The main attraction in Broghil valley is Karambar Lake.

Karambar Lake:
It is located between Khyber pakhton khawa and Gilgit Baltistan. There are no proper road towards this lake the lake is covered with mountain from all sides having green lush grass and flowers in it the water of lake is crystal clear and having trout fish in it.Karambar lake is the 31st highest lake in the world. There are no advanced facilities in Lake but you can manage adventurous tour like camping there. The local people around the lake leave there pets for feeding in summer and spring season.
Mountain Passes:
Broghil valley is a house of different connecting passes and tracks. The connecting tracks connects Broghil with Gilgit, Hunza , Pamir, Wakhan corridor, and Tajikistan. It enhances the shorter track towards Wakhan. You can access Ishkoman valley through the Suktarabad glacier. The connection of Hunza valley and Broghil bears wonderful sceneries and high altitude which is one of the highest tracks in Broghil valley. The Darkot pass is famous for Yak riding and Yurting which is also one of the shortest ways to enter in Gilgit from Broghil. During the Russian invasion over Wakhan Mr. Rehman Qul migrated into Pakistan through this pass with thousands of animals and Kirgiz. Recently the route from Chianatar glacier to Immit Ishkoman is discovered by Italian Tourist group.
Wildlife in Broghil:
Baroghil Valley is homeland of ibex, wolves, snow leopards, white and brown bears, fox, rabbits, marmots and many more wild animals. The bird species are, hawks, eagles, falcons are found in the high mountains, while pheasants, partridges, hoopoes, larks, sparrows, quails, doves, swallow starlings, nightingales, crows and vultures.

How to Access:
Although the national park is difficult to access but the route to access it from International tourists is get direct flights to Islamabad after that they may get flights to Gilgit (domestic flights) from where you can hire transport the other route is Islamabad to Chalas to Hunza to Gilgit to Darkot Yasin valley to Chikar to Broghil pass.
The other famous spots to explore around Broghil are, Showrsheer, Lashkargaz, Swinj, Sohktarabad, Chittiboi Glacier, Virgoth, Mitrandas, and Gakuch.

Red Fox | Vulpes

Red fox is also known as Vulpes it is present in Baluchistan, Maree, Azad Kashmir and Korakaram mountains. The red fox is different from other species of fox it is more progressive carnivore’s species among others with same physic. Red foxes would like to live in a social circle which is lead by two foxes that are also responsible of breading. 

Eating and Hunting:
Usually red fox targeted small species like, leporids, reptiles, game birds, invertebrates and young ungulates. Occasionally they can also eat fruits and vegetables. The young Fox is not responsible for hunting they can be feed by parents until and unless they are able to hunt. Red fox itself have threat from Wolf, leopard and Jackals.

Social behavior:
Every two breeding kin have their own territory on which they can't allow for non-breeding kin. It also kills smaller predators within their territory. The young pups are being cared by both parents equally one of them must stay with young pups 24/7. Usually they feed female Pups 8-10 months and male Pups for 6-8 month. During breeding young Pups entire family took stay for 8-10 months in same place. 

Habit and Distribution:
Red fox is commonly closer to the human civilization it does not matters how far the humans are living. It is found in both plain and mountain area. Usually red fox like to live at mountains it is cool mind species, it would not attack on humans and other species without any reason but the only smaller one for feed. Naturally it habitats are dry, landscape, and abundant edge of woodland and scrubs.

In 2000 one of the team from National Geography came to research the Fox species in Pakistan first they took stay in Baluchistan after that they hear that the forest of Margalla hills, Maree and Kashmir bears lot of species finally they took flights to Islamabad where they research that there is no threat for this species. The area where Fox found has large population of it. They can live near humans place and came down to the forest of Islamabad and Margalla hills forest in winter due to snow fall. Some time it also hunts fishes from gulch due to shortage of food during winter season. Thus Red fox is safer and unique species in Pakistan.

Thursday, 28 March 2013

Hazarganji Chiltan National Park

Hazarganji is one of the beautiful national parks in Pakistan. The Hazarganji is local word of Baluchistan meaning that thousands of treasure was buried in Chiltan national park of old army this was the passage of armies and merchandise at very old time. The area is consists of mountain, slope, and plain. The north-south area of this park is easily accessible from Quetta 25-30 kilometers far from the edge of the Quetta. The park is very famous for tourism but at local level international tourists yet not explored it. In start this park is use to safe the diminishing population of Suleiman Markhor and Wild Goat people came from whole Pakistan to see those species some people also plan illegal hunting of Markhor to overcome this problem government of Pakistan established wildlife and forest protection department. Due to interest of visitor’s government also build rest house, museum, and picnic spot for the entertainment of visitors. 

Wildlife in Chiltan Park:
One of the groups in the behalf of National Geography channel came for research on wildlife in Hazarganji Park. They explore that there are almost 800 species of wild goat the population of Suleiman Markhor is very low which is about 300-400 due to lot of hunting. The wild goat likes to live in Jungle area while the Markhor use to live at hilly area the height of mountain is 1500-200 meters.
There are mammals and birds founded in National Park which are, Wild goat, Suleiman Markhor, Leopard, Jackal,  Porcupine, Desert hare, Deer, Red fox, Stripped hyena, Indian wolf, Urial sheep, and Caracal. While the bird species are, Lichtenstein's desert finch, Stonechat, Houbara bustard, vulture, Laggar falcon, Indian sparrow hawk, Scops owl, Common cuckoo, European bee-eater, Rock partridge, European nightjar, Orphean warbler, Griffon vulture, Egyptian vulture, and Honey buzzard. There are also reptiles in desert area of Chiltan Park which are, Saw scaled viper, Monitor lizard, Russell's viper, and Spiny tailed lizard.

The species of plant and trees found in Hazarganji are, amid juniper, pistachio, almond and ash trees.

Background and Access:
The wildlife Park of Hazarganji is established in 1980 which is protected by Rangers this park is protected area for Markhor which is national animal of Pakistan. Hunting of Markhor is strictly prohibited in Park. There is no permission to stay more than two days in this park due to security reason of wild life. No local transportation and proper road leads towards park you have to book and hire transport from Quetta. The international visitors can take flights to Karachi to get access while the domestic visitors can book direst flights to Quetta from whole Pakistan. 

Tuesday, 19 March 2013

K2 National Park | 2nd Highest Peak

K2 is the 2nd highest mountain in the earth located in Pakistan. It is also known as Mount Godwin Austen. The highest peak of K2 is 8611 meters which is 8.5 km in length mostly the peak is covered with snow and clouds. It is also known as Savage Mountain due to high fatality rate and difficulty of ascent. K2 has never been climbed in winter if four hikers climb one of them may die due to hard weather and lake of oxygen. The name K2 is derived by the Great Trigonometric Survey on which firstly K1 is discovered locally known as Masherbrum. The local name of K2 is known as Kechu and Chogori in Balti language which is combination of two words "chogo" and ri which means "big mountain".

K2 lies in Karakorum Range from the northwestern side. Some of its border touches the basin of north Tarim and Lesser Himalayas on the south. Some part of K2 is disputed between Pakistan and India on which the world highest battle is going on. It also has some of part in China from the border of Gilgit Baltistan. From the Indian side it is started from the middle means no need to hike too much because the level of ground is already equal to the middle and if you attempt from Pakistan you need more climbing and hiking to reach the peak.
There are few attempts to reach at the top peak of K2 on which first attempt was in 1856 which was the survey type tour they dedicate the name K2 to the 2nd peak of Karakorum and the other peak named as follows, Masherbrum as K1,  Gasherbrum IV as K3,  Gasherbrum II as K4, and Gasherbrum I as K5. After that in 1892 a British expedition has reached at Baltoro Glacier and turn back due to very tough track and weather. In 1902 there was much batter attempt to reach at the top by Oscar Eckenstein and Aleister Crowley due to less transportation facility they just consumed 14 days to reach at the foot of the K2 after that they start climbing. After many attempts the successful reached is only 6525 meters which is almost 3000 meters short from the peak.

In 1953 Charles Houston returned to reach the top of the K2 that was his 2nd attempt due to high tendency of storm they turn back from the height of 7800 meters they almost done their job but the weather force them back they also have shortage of food and their camps are not perfect to resists the storms.
After many attempts the successful attempt to reach the top peak of K2 was in 1954 by Ardito Desio, and the two climbers. The team included a Pakistani member, Colonel Muhammad Ata-ullah, who had been a part of the 1953 American expedition and Pakistani Hunza porter Amir Mahdi, who both proved vital to the expedition's success in that they carried oxygen to 8100 meters.

Now a days due to high technology and experience it is easier to lead the top peak of K2 if you are coming from out of Pakistan you may get flights to Islamabad from where you can get domestic flight to Gilgit after that you may find jeeps and animals to reach at the foot of K2. There are many local guides and porter available at very cheap cost that can very effective and helpful for leading the K2. It is highly recommended that do not try to lead until you get experience and all necessary kits for leading the great peak of K2. 

Leopard | Snow Leopard

Leopards are the big cats belong to the cant families. Snow leopard in found in mountain ranges of central Asia. The snow leopard is generally known as Panthera uncia. It is found at the height of 10,990 to 22,000 feet from the sea level. Snow leopard loves to live in cold area his competitor are wolves who use to hunt in group some time leopard got disturbance while hunting. Snow leopard is bit smaller than big cats having weight 27 to 55 kilogram. In some special cases it is noticed that male leopard become 75 kg which is abnormal weight as ordinary leopard. The length from head to base of the tail is 30 to 50 inches in special cases it might be 50 to 60 inches but very rare. 

Due to cold weather species leopard have long thick fur which have smoky gray and yellowish colors. The snow leopard cannot roar as tiger and lion can, but the speed and quickness is more than any other species including lion and tiger. It has long tail which helps them to maintain the balance during travel in dangerous rocky areas. The snow leopard has flexible body like athleats and adjusts body temperature according to the weather. It has very strong jaws and claws to grip and bite the hunt.

The home of snow leopard is Iran and Turkmenistan’s mountain range but, it can be found in China, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Russia, Tajikistan, Myanmar and Uzbekistan. If we talk about geographically it is present in, Hindu Kush in eastern Afghanistan, In Tibet it is found at Altyn Tagh in the north, the mountains to the west of Lake Baikal,  In Mongolia it is found in Gobi Altai and the Khangai Mountains, and the mountains of Pamir, Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kashmir, Kunlun. The species of different regions are bit different from each other by size and color.

Usually snow leopard loves to live in cold area so, in summer it moves to the height. Snow leopard found in mountainous meadows and in rocky regions at height of 8900 to 20000 feet. In winter due to shortage of food and water it came down into the forest at 3900 to 6600 feet high from the sea level. Snow leopard can easily travel in snow but usually he likes to walk in already made track by the other animals. Like other cats snow leopard does not allow other leopard to hunt and walk in his territory male leopard like to live alone.

Snow leopard only take meat meal by hunting before eat it sucks the blood of hunt from throat like other hunter species do. The hunted animals are Markhor, Argali, Hares, Birds, Himalayan Tahr, Bharal, Plus deer, wild boars, and languor monkeys. The young Yak is also in range of snow leopard. Snow leopard prefers ambush hunting although he has very fast speed equally on rock and snow.

For exploration of snow leopard it found in Khunjerab national park, Gilgit baltistan, and Chitral national park, in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan by getting flights to Islamabad  you can manage flight to Gilgit or by road to access snow leopard ares. Gobi Gurvansaikhan national park, Mongolia to access this national park it is recommended to get flights to Ulan Bator after that you can further get domestic flights and buses. The other regions for snow leopard hunting are Qomolangma national nature preserve, Tibet, China, Hemis national park, in Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Monday, 18 March 2013

Markhor | Big Goat

Markhor is a mountainous goat found in ranges of Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Kashmir. The name "Markhor" meaning "Mar" means Snake and "Khor" eating so, the combination of these two words give the meaning of Snake eater "Markhor" these are the Persian words. There are further sub species of Markhor like, Capra falconeri falconeri, Capra falconer jerdoni, Capra falconer cashmiriensis, Capra falconer megaceros, and Capra falconer heptneri. Its height is 65 to 110 cm long from toes to shoulders with weight of 40 to 110 kg. Ordinary the weight and height of female is less as compare to the male. Markhor have corkscrew 60 inches for male and 10 inches for female. 

 Markhor is one of the rare and special species of Caprinae family but unfortunately it is being hunted and still on target by the hunters. And the thing is not local people are hunter of Markhor but the strangers do hunting this specie. Markhor are also threatened by the snow leopards and wolves which also causes shortage of this specie in the earth. How can we save this rare wildlife in the earth? by distribution of species in less danger area where the other wild such that leopard and wolves are not present. By clearing the territory from the enemy animals of Markhor we can save the species of Markhor in this earth.
wild life is pakistan

Markhor is the national animal of Pakistan you can found it in Gilgit Baltistan, Kahsmir and Astor the further home land of these species are Chitral, Hunza regions, and Ghizar. Markhor loves to live at height so you can found it at the height of 1,500 to 11,000 feet. It normally eats grass and shrubs male and female both can stand on two legs to reach higher leaf. Usually females like to live in group but male of these species like to live alone. There are 2500-3000 species left in Pakistan due to threatened of human and other animals.
wild life in pakistan

If you look as whole you found Markhor in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Jummu Kashmir. The Uzbek Markhor is found in Bukhara which is called Bukharan Markhor or Capra falconer heptneri. The Tajik markhor, belongs to Capra falconeri heptneri family is found in Shuroobod and in the Darvaz ranges of Tajikistan. In Afghanistan Markhor is founded in Kabul mountain ranges the species of Kabul and Bukhara are same with each other. Due to heavy bombardment and war in Afghanistan many species dies and remaining migrated to the Uzbek and Northern area of Pakistan.

 To explore the great species in Pakistan you have to take flights to Islamabad than further domestic flights to Gilgit where you can access the native home of Markhor, Chitral, Hunza, and Ghizar in jeeps although hunting in Pakistan is not very strictly banned but there is restrictions to hunt. To explore the Bukharan Markhor Uzbekistan Airways is a best option by which you can manage tour to Bukhara where you can also found historical places of Sufism and great Alexander. And you can also cover the distance through train if you want to explore Tajik Markhor.

uzbekkistan airways
Markhor is one of the rare and beautiful species of the world so, take care of this precious before it would completely finished so, safe the natural environment and wild life to maintain the beauty of this earth.

Siberian Duck

Siberian duck is known as common eider type of sea-duck. Home of this bird is North coast of Europe, Eastern Siberia and North America. Its body is about 50-71 cm and it can fly up to 113 Km per hour. It builds nest close to the water. There are four species of duck in which common eider are both the larger and the smaller. The smaller bird is about 20-28 cm and its weight is 0.8 to 0.3 kg. It is characterized as bulky shape and large, wedge shaped bill. The male's outlook is black and white plumage and green shining neck. The female is a brown bird, but might be distinguished from all ducks, except other eider species, on the basis of size and head shape.

Social Behavior:
Sea ducks are colonial breeders. They would like to nest near water in colonies of these birds the number of birds are less than 100 to upwards of 10,000-15,000. Female eiders frequently exhibit a high degree of temperature where they return to breed on the same island. This behavior can allow many individuals nesting on the same island, as well as the production of baby birds based on how much female social structures is strong. This heritage has likely played a role in the creation of co-operative breeding behavior among eiders species. Examples of these behaviors include laying eggs in the nests of related individuals, where female eiders team up and share the work of rearing ducklings.
flights to islamabad

Migration and Travel:
Common Eider does not stays throughout the year in one place as the coastal ice land of Siberia and North America become more coldest to survive they start migration to the comparatively warm areas. The temperature of Common Eider home's fell to -20 to - 30 so, they must take step of migration. It is nature of Siberian duck that they live in social community and travel in group as well. Mostly group of birds like to travel in night to the next morning in day they took rest. Every group has one leader which leads the way and other have to follow him. They fly in "V" shape the leader and others fly on right and left equally. They start migrating in December and returns on March and April mostly birds migrate to India, Pakistan, China, and Afghanistan. on which 70,000 to 80,000 birds took flights to Pakistan, 1,50,000 towards India and more than 2,00,000 towards Afghanistan.

Common Eider in Pakistan:
The birds migrated towards Pakistan took flights to Baluchistan, Sindh, Punjab and KPK further there are many destinations where they pass winter for warm weather and food. The place they chose in Pakistan is warm in winter for them which is equal to the weather of summer in Siberia and North America. Those birds took flights to Kainjar Lake in Sindh, Hanna Lake in Baluchistan, Tarbela Dam in KPK, and many small places of Punjab. Some birds took flights to Islamabad in Rawal dam, Simli dam, and Mangladam.

Hunting of Birds in Pakistan:
For the hunting of common eider in Pakistan there are not very tight rules the places for hunting in Tarbela dam, Rawal dam, Hanna Lake, River Sindh and Simly dam. The hunting in rawal dam and simly dam is accessible by getting flights to Islamabad from out of country and other cities. For hunting in Baluchistan you have to take flights to Quetta in Hanna Lake, for hunting common eider in Kainjar Lake get flights to Karachi and for Tarbela dam flights to Peshawar and Islamabad both are suitable. Hunting of those birds are not legal but by getting permission from government. The months for hunting are December, January, February, and March after that this common eider may fly back.